Ultimately, intimidation and psychological warfare against innocent civilians contributed to the group’s success just as much as physical destruction did.
American strategy towards the Middle East is characterized by an overemphasis on military aid, rather than a long-term developmental strategy to safeguard American interests.
The problem of “proliferation fatalism” and “deterrence optimism” is seen through withering arms control agreements, the conclusion of bilateral efforts to uphold nonproliferation diplomacy, and deep fissures between Democrats and Republicans on achieving the goal of nuclear nonproliferation.
Peace, according to the Taliban, would only take shape following a full withdrawal of US troops out of the region, release of Taliban prisoners, and establishment of an Islamic Caliphate.
In Doha, Qatar on February 29, 2020, the United States and the Taliban agreed to a peace deal in an attempt to “officially” end America’s longest war. However, its effectiveness has faltered due to a lack of true diplomatic initiative and cooperation